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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Akoya
A seawater pearl produced by the Japanese "Akoya" oyster.

Alloy
A compound that is comprised of two or more metals. In jewellery it is usually done to make the metal harder, more durable, or to alter its colour.

Amber
A yellowish-brown fossil resin. Also found in black and varieties of brown and orange. Amber comes from ancient forests of fir trees, or mined from under the Baltic Sea. Orange color amber comes from Sicily.

Amethyst
A gemstone found in shades from pale lavender to deep purple. A crystallized quartz found in Russia, Brazil, Uruguay, Ceylon and the U.S.

Arabesque
Following scrollwork, often in low relief, epitomized by curlicues of line.

Art Deco
(1910-1930) A stilted, stylized design which was named after the 1925 L’Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes, held in Paris, France. Much of the Art Deco design was a transition from the earlier Art Nouveau, and as with the nouveau epoch, was inspired by the Art of the American Indian, ancient Egyptian, and Greek and Roman architecture. The early 1920's interest in Cubism and Dadism as a new Art form, greatly influenced the Art Deco period. The King Tut traveling exhibit, in the 1970's, renewed the craze for Egyptian design jewellery. Additionally, the mysteries of the pyramids and a continuing revival of astrological studies, lent itself to Art Deco designs which in turn were incorporated in the Art Moderne period following 1930.

Art Moderne
(1935-1945) It is generally accepted that the period of the 1920-s to the 1930's is the Art Deco period. The decade of 1940-1950 is considered the "modern" period, an era in which just about any conceivable type of design — whether it be flamboyant or contrived with delicate fancy — survived. However, the Art Moderne period (1935-1945) avoided such frivolous swirls and instead streamlined into crisp geometric lines, all designs of decorative and utilitarian Art forms. "Modern" seems to be a term giving license to all creativity in any form, be it eccentric or strictly along conventional jeweler’s lines. The Art Moderne period expresses the conflict between machine and nature, which is so evident in Art Deco. But Art Moderne contains somewhat less contrived Artistry, although some pieces do appear as near absurdities.

Art Nouveau
A period of design between the 1890's and 1910; the jewellery is characterized by flowing lines, unusual interpretations of nature, the use of women with long flowing hair and the utilization of unusual materials.

Assaying
Process of determining the proportions of precious metal contained in a piece of gold or silver.

B

Baby bracelet
A bracelet designed to be worn by a baby or toddler. They are often given as christening gifts and engraved with the child's name.

Baguette
A narrow rectangular-cut stone most often chosen for diamonds. When associated with emeralds, it is called an emerald-cut.

Bakelite
A trademark for a synthetic resin chemically formulated and named after Belgian chemist, L. H. Backeland (1909). This newer plastic was for molding items formerly created in the highly flammable Celluloid or in hard rubber molds. It is capable of being molded and carved.

Bangle
Non-flexible bracelet.

Baroque
Bold, ornate, heavy-looking ornamentation. Irregular shaped stone or pearl.

Base metal
A collective term used to describe any non-precious metal.

Bead setting
A setting wherein the gemstone is held with beads of metal as opposed to prongs/claws. The beads are set in place using a beading tool, and to the naked eye, it appears as though the stone is held by beaded prongs.

Berlin Iron
Cast iron jewellery worked into delicate openwork patterns, and made in Berlin during the first half of the nineteenth century.

Bezel
Gemstone setting where a strip or wall of metal encircles the gemstone.

Blemish
A term used to describe external characteristics on the surface of a diamond, such as: nick, scratches, polish marks, abrasions, naturals and extra facets.

Brilliance
Intensity of the internal and external reflections of white light returned to the eye through the crown of a diamond. Proportions, polish, symmetry, clarity and overall workmanship all affect a diamond’s brilliance.

Brilliant Cut
A cutting style most often used for diamonds, consisting of 58 facets, also known as "modern cut" or "full cut".

Briolette
An oval or pear-shaped diamond entirely faceted in triangular cuts.

Buff Top Cabochon
Style of stone cutting where the top of the gemstone is a dome (en cabochon) and the pavilion is faceted.

C

Cabachon
A stone without facets, and shaped like a dome.

Calibre-Cut
Small stones cut in usually rectangular shapes and faceted in a step cut to fit exactly into a setting or against another stone.

Cameo
Conch shell, onyx gem, coral and various gemstones, which were carved in either relief or intaglio. Cameos are also molded in synthetics such as plastic or glass. Cameos usually depict a scene or portrait, but may be symbolic. Ivory and wood can also be carved into a cameo, but natural elements cannot be molded.

Carat
Unit of weight used for precious stones. One carat is equal to 0.200 grams.

Carnelian
A variety of chalcedony with a wax-like luster. An ornamental stone found mainly in Greece or in Asia. Carnelian has a translucent color which may be deep red, flesh red, or reddish-white. It takes a good polish and cut, and is ideal for seals and intaglios.

Centre stone
The prominent precious gemstone which is the centerpiece of a ring setting.

Chalcedony
An ornamental stone found in Asia Minor, primarily Greece, which has a translucent quality. It is a variety of quartz. The term chalcedony denotes a grayish or milky-colored quartz including the family of onyx, agate, cat’s eye, jasper, carnelian, and chrysoprase. All take high polish and are suitable for good intaglio work except for the cat’s eye which is polished into a cabochon-cut stone.

Channel Setting
A series of stones set close together in a straight line with the sides for the mounting gripping the outer edges of the stones.

Chasing
The ornamentation of metal with grooves or lines with the use of hand-chisels and hammers. Obverse (front) chasing is called intaglio; chasing from the reverse side (back) is called repousse.

Chip
Shallow break on a diamond that extends from either a girdle edge or a facet junction. A chip is considered an internal clarity characteristic, and can pose a durability concern.

Chrysoberyl
A semi-precious stone of transparent golden yellow, green yellow or brown.

Chrysoprase
Apple-green in color, it is actually a dyed chalcedony or agate which has a cloud-like rather than brilliant color. It is almost like "Vaseline" glass, seemingly with an oily surface. This stone was very popular during the Art Deco and Art Moderne periods, particularly when combined with marcasites and silver.

Citrine
A pale lemon-colored gemstone of the quartz variety often mistaken for topaz.

Clarity
A term used to describe the relative absence of inclusions and blemishes in a gemstone.

A diamond’s clarity rating has a direct effect on a diamond’s beauty and price.

Virtually all diamonds have imperfections called inclusions and blemishes. A stone is said to be “flawless” if, under ten-power magnification, no external imperfections are visible and no internal flaws are visible. A truly flawless diamond is extremely rare and priced accordingly.

All gem-grade diamonds can receive a clarity rating based on an industry standard scale: FL (flawless) to I3 (heavily included).

Claw
A tapering metal projection, rising from the base of a jewelry setting and used to hold a stone in position as needed. Also, sometimes called 'prong'.

Cleavage
The breaking of stones along lines of weakness related to the stones internal atomic structure.

Cloud
A type of inclusion composed of numerous pinpoints. Pervasive clouds can cause a hazy or milky appearance in a diamond.

Colour
The basic hue (body color) of a diamond when brilliance and dispersion are ignored. The saturation of color is judged against a predetermined scale.

The colored tinting found in most diamonds is caused by minute impurities within the stone. The untrained eye is incapable of making the color evaluations that can affect the value of a stone by thousands of dollars.
The color of each diamond is determined by comparing it to authenticated “master diamonds”. Each stone is then color-graded to a precise scale from D (colorless) to Z (saturated).

Coral
(genuine) Skeleton of the coral polyp which was highly popular in fashionable English Victorian circles. Most coral used in Victorian jewellery came from the Mediterranean.

Crown
The part of a diamond above the girdle plane.

Culet
Small, octagonal facet on the point of the pavilion on some brilliant-cut diamonds or a rectangular facet on the keel of some step-cut diamonds.

Cushion Shape
Term used to describe a diamond with a rectangular or squarish girdle outline, curved sides, rounded corners and brilliant-cut facets. Another name for oval cut.

Cut
Cut refers to the facet proportions on the surface of a diamond, its polish and symmetry. More than any other factor, the precision of its facets determines the beauty of the stone. There is a tradeoff between quality and size. When a stone is cut to maximize brilliance, dispersion and scintillation, it usually loses size. More of the stone must be cut away. Conversely, when cut for size, the diamond usually loses brilliance, dispersion and scintillation.

D

Double Clip
Type of brooch consisting of two halves joined together on a frame which can be detached and worn singly.

DWT
Abbreviation for pennyweight.

E

Ebony
Ebony is a black colored wood of great hardness, heavier than water and capable of taking on a fine polish. It is found primarily in Ceylon and is used in making beads and in combination with other materials such as silver and gemstones combined in Deco jewel Artifacts.

Edwardian
Edwardian jewellery (1900-1915) is named after the period of King Edward VII reign. King Edward VII came to power after his mother, Queen Victoria’s death, in 1901. Known for being feminine and delicate with elements like filigree, bows, wreaths, and garland motifs which characterized the “Belle Epoque” style, which lasted 5 years past King Edward’s death.

Emerald Cut
Rectangular shaped stone with mitered corners which is elongated and octagonal.

Enamel
Enameling is a firing of melted glass. The powdered glass mixture is composed of feldspar, quartz, sods, borax, calcium phosphates, and kaolin. Metallic oxides produce the various desired colors. There is little transparent, see-through, colorless enameling; rather a better and more definitive term is translucent. However, the word transparent has been an accepted term for plique-a-jour enameling which permits light to pass through as in stained glass.
There are several important types of enameling:
Basse-Taille: Metal plate cut to various depths into which translucent enamel is poured, thus achieving a 3-dimensional effect. The depth of relief produces shadings from light to dark. The deeper the metal is cut, the darker the color; where shallow routing occurs, the shading is almost transparent. This routing is worked intaglio, the opposite of repousse.
Champleve: An enameling technique in which areas of metal are cut, etched, or routed and filled with enamel. Unlike cloisonne, the cells are cut rather than formed by wires (cloisons). Champleve is most commonly applied to copper or bronze. The metals are gilded on exposed and visible surfaces.
Cloisonné: Enameling in which thin wire made of silver, gold, bronze or copper is gilded, then bent to form cells (cloisons). Each cell or cloison is then filled with enamel. Each color is in a separate compartment, each compartment separated by this thin wire.
Guilloche: This technique differs in that the designs are machine-turned and etched, and then enameled … this is a much faster process. Guilloche pattern consists of interlacing curved lines.
Limoges enamel: A colorful application of enamel which depicts a portrait or scene similar to that rendered on canvas.
Niello enameling: The lines or incisions of a design are contrasted with the color of the metal, i.e., gold, silver, etc., by applying in several layers a mixture of sulphur, lead, silver and copper. This addition appears black when filled into the engraved metallic work. Niello is a blackish enameling process, providing contrasts in highlights and darkness of the design.
Plique-a-Jour: A translucent cloisonné in which there is no metal backing for the enamel work. During firing, a metal supportive base is used until firing ceases. Then, when the piece has cooled and the enamel has hardened, the finished product no longer requires the base, so this support is removed. It is a most cautious procedure, requiring highly skilled craftsmanship and technique.

Engraving
Cutting lines into metal which are either decorative or symbolic. Method used in monogramming a crest, cartouche or escutcheon.

Enhancement
An unnatural process that alters the appearance, particularly the color or clarity, of a natural diamond or other gemstone. Coating, irradiation, high temperature/high pressure, fracture filling and laser drilling are all examples of enhancement. Synonymous with 'treatment'.

Eternity band
Traditionally, this term refers to a millenniums old ring design wherein the band has been set with a continuous row of gemstones. Today it is most frequently given to mark an anniversary or the birth of a child, though many have begun exchanging the rings as bridal bands. Also, known as an 'Anniversary Ring'

F

Faberge
Peter Carl Faberge (1846-1920) is best known for the Easter eggs he began making in 1884 for the Tsar and Tsarina of Russia. After studying in several European centres, he began working for his father Gustav’s firm. Upon his father’s retirement in 1870, he took over the establishment. His international renown was secured in 1900 at the Paris Exposition. Afterwards, he began creating objects for Edward VII and other European royals. The firm’s success continued until the 1918 Revolution when Faberge escaped to Switzerland.

Facet
Small flat surface cut into gemstone, glass, or shell. Its purpose is to refract light or enhance the design.

Fancy shape
Any shape other than a round-brilliant or single cut. Includes: pear, marquise, oval and heart shapes.

Feather
Any cleavage or fracture on or below the surface of a gemstone. The appearance is usually white when viewed at a right angle to the break.

Filigree
To apply thread-like wire and decorate into a lace, lattice, or cobweb work.

Filled gold
A gold article with a hollow centre that has been filled by the manufacturer with some other substance.

Fluorescence
Emission of visible light by a material when it is exposed to certain energy sources, such as radiation or ultraviolet light. Fluorescence only continues as long as the material is exposed to the energy source.

Fobs
The terms "fobs" and "charms" were interchangeable from mid-1850 through the 1930's. Watch fobs or watch charms were in vogue in the 1890-s through the turn of the century and certainly on into the 1930's when the pocket watch became more popular than ever.

Foil
Silver, gold, or other color thin leaf of metal used to back imitation gemstones or faceted glass to improve their color and provide greater brilliance.

Four C's
The popular and overly simple four factors — cut, clarity, color and carat weight, which are commonly used to determine the value of a diamond. These factors alone are an insufficient measure of a diamond’s true quality, beauty and value.

Fracture
Chipping or breaking of a stone in a way unrelated to it's internal atomic structure. Because of this fractured surfaces are often uneven.

Freshwater Pearl
Pearls found in freshwater river mussels.

G

Gallery
A strip on metal with a pattern usually refers to the sides of a ring.

Garnet
A semi-precious stone found in many colors. The Bohemian type is blood red, the almandine variety ranges from deep red to deep purple, hessonite garnets are brown orange, and demantoid garnets are found in several shades of green.

Gemstone
Any crystallized mineral structure (natural or synthetic) used in jewellery making. This includes all precious and semiprecious stones but excludes all types of plastics and glass.

GIA - Gemological Institute of America
Established in 1931, GIA is the world's largest and most respected nonprofit institute of gemological research and learning.

Gilt
An article with a thin coating of gold, gold leaf or powder.

Girldle
The widest part of a gemstone which divides the crown from the pavilion.

Gold
The most malleable, and most ductile of all metals, gold by itself is too soft to be used in it natural state to be used for jewellery making, and it is commonly alloyed with copper, nickel, or other metals. Unlike silver it does not oxidize or tarnish.

Gold-plated
A layer of gold applied to the surface of an article by electrolytic, chemical or vapour deposition processes.

Green gold
Gold which contains a high proportion of silver.

Gypsy setting
A setting wherein the gemstone is set very low. The only visible part is the top near the crown which has been set near to flush with the surface of the jewellery.

H

Hallmarks
An official mark first adopted in England. The mark is incised, punched, or stamped on gold or silver to show quality and to signify purity of metal according to "sterling" or "carat" standard.

Hammered finish
A type of metal finish achieved by hammering the piece of metal in such a way that it becomes multifaceted. This type of finish is often used with gold or silver creating more planes from which light can reflect. Hammered Finishes can be glossy, satin, or matte depending on the finishing technique.

Heirloom
A valued possession that is passed down among family members through generations.

I

Inclusion
Any internal clarity characteristic of a diamond. Large or numerous inclusions are considered flaws that seriously diminish the value of a gem.

Virtually all diamonds have imperfections called inclusions and blemishes. A stone is said to be “flawless” if, under ten-power magnification, no external imperfections are visible and no internal flaws are visible. A truly flawless diamond is extremely rare and priced accordingly.

All gem-grade diamonds can receive a clarity rating based on an industry standard scale: FL (flawless) to I3/P3 (heavily included).

Inlay
Materials such as stones, gems, woods and metals are inserted and cemented into the surface of another material and ground down to create a smooth surface.

Intaglio
To cut a design deeply on the obverse or front side of a gem or other type material. Intaglio is the opposite of repousse work done in metals.

Invisible Setting
A channel setting using calibrated stones without any metal showing from the top.

J

Jabot Pin
A jeweled tie pin popular in the 1920's and 1930's.

Jet
Jet is the name given most black jewellery whether it be genuine or glass. Genuine jet will retain its sparkling polish for many years. "Black glass" (also known as ‘French Jet’, even though most black glass came from Bohemia), will crack, scratch, and become dull. Genuine jet is a brown-black lignite in which the texture or grain of the original fossilized wood comprised of coal, can still be seen.

Jubilee or Twentieth-Century Cut
The short-lived Jubilee Cut was created in the United States in honor of Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee in 1875. The cut didn’t appear until the beginning of the twentieth century. The Jubilee is a brilliant cut diamond that is faceted similar to the round in many regards but in a square shape.

K

Knife Edge
Refers to a piece of jewellery wherein the item's metals meet to create a sharp edge. While sharp, the edge is nor sharper than a butter knife.

L

Laboratory-created (or Lab-created)
An artificial product that has essentially the same chemical composition, crystal structure and physical (including optical) properties as a diamond or gemstone. The only permissible terms that may be used to describe such items are “synthetic diamond,” “laboratory-grown diamond” or “laboratory-created diamond,” and no abbreviations can be used.

Laboratory-grown (or Lab-grown)
An artificial product that has essentially the same chemical composition, crystal structure and physical (including optical) properties as a diamond or gemstone. The only permissible terms that may be used to describe such items are “synthetic diamond,” “laboratory-grown diamond” or “laboratory-created diamond,” and no abbreviations can be used.

Lapis Lazuli
Deep blue gemstone, sometimes containing gold-colored specks of iron pyrites. Horn, stone, or jasper are all sometimes artificially colored to look like genuine Lapis.

Laser Drill Hole
The result of an enhancement process used to improve the appearance of a diamond with dark or black inclusions. A laser is used to drill a hole to reach the inclusion surface where it can then be bleached with acid.

Lavaliere
A chain from which an ornament or gemstone hangs in the center.

Locket
A jewel which opens on a hinge.

M

Mabe Pearl
A cultured blister pearl.

Man-made
An artificial product that has essentially the same chemical composition, crystal structure and physical (including optical) properties as a diamond or gemstone. The only permissible terms that may be used to describe such items are “synthetic diamond,” “laboratory-grown diamond” or “laboratory-created diamond,” and no abbreviations can be used.

Marquise Cut
A stone cut in an oval with pointed ends or a boat-shaped stone.

Matt finish
A textured finish produced by brushing the metal surface to produce tiny parallel lines. Today it is popularly used in platinum jewellery, and sometimes referred to as satin finish.

Micro-set
A setting that involves even smaller gemstones and techniques than pavé set.

Millefiori
Glass ornamentation made from canes of colored glass that are layered, and sliced to form patterns, flowers or mosaic effects.

Millegrain
A decorating style creating a fine bead like effect around the edge of a metal collet; popular in the Edwardian and Belle Époque periods.

Modified brilliant
A type of faceting arrangement which features varying rectangular girdle outlines and cut corners with the number of facets greater or less than the standard 57 or 58 found on a round-brilliant.

Moh's Scale of Hardness
The measure 1 to 10 of a mineral's hardness in relation to other minerals, based on it's ability to resist scratching.

Moissanite
A man-made gemstone that closely resembles a diamond. It is only slightly less hard and can mimic almost all of the diamond's other qualities.

Moonstone
A translucent gemstone with a pearly or opaline luster.

Mosaic
Creating a motif or design parquetry with minute pieces of colored glass or stone which have been set into plaster. Individual portions of the design are sectioned by metal, similar to the form used in cloisonné enameling. This type of Venetian jewellery work is also called peitra dura, and was utilized for such designs as foliage, leaves, flowers, pebbles, etc. In pietra dura, the mosaic design is usually set in dull jet or black marble.

Mother-of-Pearl
Differs from abalone in color in that Mother-of-Pearl is the iridescent inner-shell layer of a pearly oyster.

Mounting
The metal frame or housing in which gemstones are set.

N

Natural
A portion of the original surface of the rough diamond which has been left on a polished diamond. This practice maximizes carat weight but may compromise beauty.

Navette Cut
A gemstone shaped like a boat or oval with pointed ends.

Nickel
Hard, malleable, and resistant to corrosion, this white metal is malleable and often mixed with precious metals such as gold and silver.

O

Opal
A semi-precious stone with a rainbow-like iridescence which are categorized as three types: opalescent precious opals, yellow-red fire opals and the common opal.

Oxidise
The process wherein a metal mixes with oxygen and becomes 'rusted'. Platinum and gold do not oxidise. Impurities in any alloys containing gold or platinum may oxidise but the actual metals do not.

P

Palladium
A white precious metal belonging to the platinum group, it weighs a little more than half as much as platinum.

Parure
Matching jewellery containing three or more pieces such as a necklace, choker, brooch, earrings, bracelet, and ring. Demi-parure consists of only two or three matching sets.

Paste
A superior glass containing oxide of lead used for jewellery to imitate gems and gemstones. Much paste is actually a composition of pounded rock crystal melted with alkaline salts and colored with metallic oxides. Some paste stones are set with bright foil, a think leaf of metal placed in back of a glass stone to heighten its brilliance. The finest quality paste, however, requires no foil or backing and is usually claw-set or bezel mounted as if it were the genuine article. Inferior paste may be backed with mercury or quicksilver and applied by machine rather than the more expensive handwork which requires each paste stone to be individually mounted.

Pave’ Set
Stones placed so closely together that almost no metal shows between them.

Pavilion
The portion of a diamond below the girdle, including the culet.

Pear shape
A brilliant-cut diamond with a pear-shaped outline having two curved sides, one rounded end and one pointed end.

Pearls
Pearls are the natural formation of a secretion called nacre. This nacre lies within an oyster and is caused by some irritating substance such as a grain of sand. When the pearls are naturally formed, they are called Oriental pearls. Cultured pearls are made by nature with the help of man. Fresh-water pearls are also called "river pearls".

Platinum
A non-corrosive silver white metal, which is heavy and has a high tensile strength.

Plique-A-Jour
A translucent cloisonné in which there is no metal backing for the enamel work. During firing, a metal supportive base is used until firing ceases. Then when the piece has cooled and the enamel has hardened, the finished product no longer requires this base so the support is removed.

Polish
The overall condition of a facet’s surface on a fashioned diamond.

Proportion
The relative dimensions and angles of a diamond’s faceting and the relationships that exist between them.

R

Repousse’
Decorating metal by pushing out from behind or from the reverse side, in order to create a design in relief. Repousse’ is work in metal. Working from the front is called intaglio, which can be achieved in metal and/or gem. However, neither process can be done in glass or plastics, which must be molded.

Rhodium-plated
A layer of rhodium applied to the surface of an article by electrolytic process.

Riviere
Choker type necklace that is a continuous line of gemstones usually of graduated or equal size stones.

Rolled gold
A laminated material comprising gold or gold alloy bonded to another metal and subsequently rolled or drawn.

Rose Cut
Various forms of the rose cut diamond have been around since the mid 16th century derived from older cuts. Basic rose cuts have a flat base and crown composed of triangular facets which rise to form a point. These cuts are rare and usually only seen in antique jewellery. There is a growing demand for rose cuts for the purpose of repairing or reproducing antique pieces.

Rose gold
Also known as pink and red gold, rose gold is a type of gold alloy that is created when gold is combined with copper. The highest carat for rose gold is referred to as crown gold and is 22 karat.

Round Brilliant Cut
A traditional diamond shape based on the octahedron rough crystal. It has 57 or 58 facets consisting of a crown, girdle and pavilion. The crown has a table, 8 kite-shaped bezel facets, 8 star facets, and 16 triangular upper-girdle facets. The girdle circumscribes the diameter and may be either faceted or bruted. The pavilion contains 8 kite-shaped main facets, and 16 triangular lower-girdle facets. It may or may not have a culet on the pavilion.

Roundels
Tiny round beads often used as spacers or separators.

S

Safety Clasp
A secondary closure used on some bracelets and necklaces to add extra security for the wearer.

Sapphire
This extremely hard gemstone is from the Corundum class of minerals. It is one of the four precious gemstones, the other three being diamonds, rubies, and emeralds. Available in a multitude of eye-catching colors, sapphires of blue and pink hues are the most popular kind used today.

Satin finish
A textured finish produced by brushing the metal surface to produce tiny parallel lines. Today it is popularly used in platinum jewellery, and is sometimes referred to as matte finish.

Sautoir
An extremely long neck chain, which falls below the waistline and terminates with a tassel or pendant. Popular in the early 20th century.

Scarabus
(Scarab) Form of a beetle, the Egyptian symbol of longevity. Many Deco designs were inspired by this form, especially after the opening of King Tut’s tomb in 1922.

Scintillation
The flashes of reflective light emanating from a diamond’s polished facets are observed when either the diamond or light source is moved. Scintillation is often referred to as 'sparkle'.

Semi Mount
A ring that has accenting stones in place, but there is no feature stone yet in the setting. These rings are often sold for those who want to create their own jewellery or change the style of their ring, but keep the original stone.

Setting
The entire metal mounting holding the polished diamond or diamonds. The design and workmanship of the setting is critical to the overall beauty of a diamond ring. Synonymous with 'mounting'.

Shank
The part of the ring that encircles the finger. Strictly speaking, the shank of the ring does not include the head or mounting that carries the gemstones.

Shape
The face-up girdle outline of a polished diamond or gemstone.

Shared-setting
A setting style in which a pair of centrally positioned prongs holds two stones—one to its right and one to its left.

Shoulders
The upper and lower shank of a ring, or its sides.

Side Stone
A stone or stones that are set one either side of the feature stone or down the shank of the ring.

Silver
Silver is a precious metal often used in jewellery. This soft alloy is both the highest thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity of any metal. When exposed to aid, the metal oxidizes and tarnishes.

Silver-plated
A layer of silver applied to the surface of an article by electrolytic or chemical process.

Sterling Silver
An alloy of 92.5% silver and copper or another material.

Symmetry
A term used to describe the precision and exactness of the facet placement on a polished diamond.

Synthetic
An artificial product that has essentially the same chemical composition, crystal structure and physical (including optical) properties as a diamond or gemstone. The only permissible terms that may be used to describe such items are “synthetic diamond,” “laboratory-grown diamond” or “laboratory-created diamond,” and no abbreviations can be used.

T

Table
The large facet in the center of the crown of a polished diamond. On a round-brilliant-cut diamond, the table is octagonal in shape.

Three stone ring
A setting wherein three gemstones are set in a parallel line next to one another representing the past, the present and the future.

Tiffany Setting
So name for the jeweller Tiffany & Co. that began using the setting in 1886, the setting is characterized by a high six or five prong setting that rises up away from the shank to secure and protect the stone. There are variations on the setting, but traditionally, the prongs are slender and the presentation is simple.

Titanium
A strong, low-density, highly corrosion-resistant, lustrous white metallic element that occurs widely in igneous rocks and is used to alloy aircraft metals for low weight, strength, and high-temperature stability. Titanium rings cannot be resized.

Torsade
Twisted strands of pearls ending in a clasp.

Trapeze Cut
A gemstone cut into an equilateral triangle with a flat top.

Tutti Frutti
Jewellery set with multi colored gems carved in shapes of leaves, flowers and berries and often in a basket design.

U

Ultrasonic Cleaner
A machine that cleans jewellery by vibrating a solution at an ultra-high frequency. Capable of cleaning tiny cavities of a jewellery piece without scratching the surface but can damage soft or brittle gems. Never to be used on pearl jewellery and some coloured gemstones.

V

Valuation
A jewellery valuation (also known as a valuation certificate) is a document that describes an item of jewellery in detail and also states the value of the item in question.

W

White gold
Created by alloying yellow gold with palladium, nickel, zinc, and/or silver, white gold is often selected as a less expensive alternative to platinum. It is often plated with rhodium (a member of the platinum family of metals) to give a platinum like sheen.

Y

Yellow gold
In its natural state gold come in varying shades of yellow. Relatively pure when initially mined, gold is usually alloyed with copper, zinc, and/or silver when used in jewellery making.

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